The notion of intellectual property (IP) has become increasingly more significant as the economy worldwide has begun to change into what is identified as an information economy – an economy with an increased emphasis on informational activities. This insight has changed what is considered valuable at the present time. In this sense, instead of physical objects, or belongings, the most important form of property is now intellectual, or the inventive products of the human mind. The four types of intellectual property include:
- Trade Secrets (protects secret information: Coke formula)
- Trademarks (shields brands: Apple, Samsung)
- Copyrights (protects works of authorship: books, movies, drawings), and
- Patents (protects functional or ornamental features: Swipe feature or iPhone design).
IP proponents claim that, just as physical property is granted legal protection, so intellectual property is to receive similar protection. That is, no one else can use that protected idea without permission from the owner. Opponents of intellectual property argue that ideas, just because they are intangible, cannot be owned.
A quick look at the number of lawsuits on intellectual property rights stresses how easily one person or company can infringe on another’s rights, even unintentionally. For instance, Samsung was required to pay $548 million in December 2015 as part of the epic Apple v. Samsung cases. In 1990, Polaroid’s case against Kodak over instant cameras resulted in a $909 million verdict. This particular intellectual property lawsuit case led to an injunction which shut down Kodak’s instant camera business.
Questions which arise from this:
1. International piracy of IPR represents one of the most significant foreign policy issues for many industrialized countries. Why have most of the international treaties on IPR protection been generally ineffective in dealing with piracy in the developing world?
2. The companies –both large and small– that are involuntarily disclosing their inventions and ideas before creating a patent are causing a “leakage”. Does this necessarily mean that those companies may never be in a position to control its IP rights?
3. It can take three to five years to reach the stage of a fully granted patent. Are inventors advised that they might have to hold an application for that length of time before they can consider selling the patent?
4. A professionally drafted patent application will normally cost between £3,000 and £6,000 in the United Kingdom. The costs of intellectual property can add up rapidly, especially for a small business. How can a start-up company afford these pricey administrative and legal fees?
Useful vocab to discuss intellectual property issues
1. Counterfeit – made in imitation of something else with intent to deceive: forged counterfeit money; a counterfeit diamond.
2. Infringe – to encroach upon in a way that violates the law or the rights of another infringe a patent.
3. CEO – a chief executive officer, the highest-ranking person in a company or other institution, ultimately responsible for making managerial decisions.
4. Consumer – one that utilizes economic goods: many consumers make purchases on the Internet.
5. Get fooled – a person who has been tricked or deceived into appearing silly or stupid: to make a fool of someone.
6. Flag something up – if you flag up something such as a problem, you bring it to someone’s attention.
7. Rip off – an inferior imitation of something.
8. Brand – a type of product manufactured by a particular company under a particular name.
9. Purchase – acquire (something) by paying for it; buy.
10. Profit – a financial gain, especially the difference between the amount earned and the amount spent in buying, operating, or producing something.
11. Genuine – truly what something is said to be; authentic.
12. Shut down – cease (or cause something to cease) business or operation.
The video below is an interview discussion with two business leaders discussing their new company and how they developed IP for it. The production is part of the London Stock Exchange and aims to provide insight into the future of business and what leaders are currently working on.
Watch the video and then answer the questions below.
1. When did Pointer start?
2. What is the aim of Pointer?
3. How does Pointer achieve this?
4. Who is David Foster?
5. Who is Ben Mok?
6. Where did Ben grow up?
7. How did Ben know a product was a counterfeit as he grew up?
8. What has Pointer found out?
9. What do consumers need to do?
10. Does Ben Mok feel a moral duty or a financial duty?
11. How do you know a product is counterfeit?
12. How do consumers get fooled?
13. Who is Robert Stolk?
14. How do Pointer’s specialists operate?
15. Do they have software systems to flag counterfeiting up?
If you’re finding this task difficult, then the answers below should help.
Why intellectual property is a good thing
1. Trade secrets, patents, copyrights, and trademarks all provide vital protection from an idea and product theft. If said product or idea is stolen, the protected creator can pursue legal action.
2. Intellectual property helps innovators to turn ideas into commercially successful products and services.
3. Trademarks allow individuals to build legitimate brands and create solid companies.
4. Copyright ensures that an author continues to own his or her artistic creation (movies, books, artwork, etc.).
The disadvantages of IP
1. Intellectual property rights (IPR) lawyers, court costs, settlement fees, filing fees and several other costs can add up rapidly, making protection of IPR expensive for even very large companies.
2. The degree to which similar trademarks infringe upon a business is a matter for debate in a civil action with related cost.
3. One downside of the trade secrets protection is that competitors may be able to “reverse engineer” the protected product or idea, discover the secret and be then entitled to use it.
4. Copyright and some patents can be given to works that do not deserve protection under the law.
Potential debating topics
There are many advantages to securing intellectual property rights. IP protects a business’ name and logo, designs, inventions, works and intellectual innovations. For the con side, the elevated costs of intellectual property rights also raise some questions, especially for start-up innovators. However, given the substantial complexity involved with IPR and their implementation against possible theft, it is essential that innovators work with specialised consultants before going into business.